- An exclusive right granted for an invention (product or process).
- Provides a new way of doing something, or offers a new technical solution to a problem.
- The invention must be of practical use, novel & shows an inventive step which could not deduced by a person with average knowledge of the technical field.
- The subject matter must be accepted as “patentable” under law
- Maximum duration : 20 years
- Covers literary, musical, dramatic choreography, pantomime, pictorial, graphic, sculptural works, screenplays, sound recordings, architectural designs and software in its literal (coded) form. Protects only physical representation of a work and not the idea, concept, procedures or underlying processes.
- Has monopoly on reproduction, use, license, performance, distribution, public performance, display broadcast, derivative works and digital transmission of the technology.
- Maximum duration : 50 years after death of author.
- Relates to the aesthetic or outward appearance of a product to make more attractive and appealing in order to influence the decision of consumers to prefer one product over another.
- Helps companies to differentiate their products from those of competitors and enhance the brand image of their products.
- Maximum duration : 15 years.
- Protects brand names, images, logos, slogans, product design and product packaging.
- Do not need to be registered with government, but can be ®.
- Lasts forever, unless there is successful claim against the authors’ or the author stops using and enforcing it.
- Maximum duration : 10 years, renewable for a period of every 10 years thereafter.
NEW PLANT VARIETY
- Protects new plant varieties through GM or breeding.
- Once registered, the duration of protection for a registered plant variety which is new, distinct, uniform and stable is 20 years from the filing date of the application for registration, whereas for a registered plant variety that is new, distinct and identifiable, the term of protection is 15 years.
- As for trees and vines, the duration of protection is 25 years from the filing date of the application for registration.
- Refers to knowledge which only you possess and which you have only revealed under a non-disclosure/confidentiality agreement.
- Not slowed by formal IP processes, but this sacrifices legally enforceable monopoly.
- Maximum duration : unlimited.
INTEGRATED CIRCUIT LAYOUTS
- Protects IC chip designs.
- Maximum duration : 10 years from the date it is first commercially exploited. The protection granted lapses 15 years after the date it is created.
- Protects quality, reputation or other characteristic attributable to geographical origin.
- Maximum duration : 10 years from the date of filing and is renewable for every ten years as long as it is still in use.